Carbon(2017)21 Available Subtitles EXCLUSIVE
This content is from the eCFR and is authoritative but unofficial. Displaying title 7, up to date as of 3/29/2023. Title 7 was last amended 3/20/2023. view historical versions A drafting site is available for use when drafting amendatory language switch to drafting site There have been changes in the last two weeks to Subpart G. view change Navigate by entering citations or phrases (eg: 1 CFR 1.1 49 CFR 172.101 Organization and Purpose 1/1.1 Regulation Y FAR).
Carbon(2017)21 Available subtitles
This content is from the eCFR and may include recent changes applied to the CFR. The official, published CFR, is updated annually and available below under "Published Edition". You can learn more about the process here.
A separate drafting site is available with paragraph structure matching the official CFR formatting. If you work for a Federal agency, use this drafting site when drafting amendatory language for Federal regulations: switch to drafting.ecfr.gov.
HTML5 defines subtitles as a "transcription or translation of the dialogue when sound is available but not understood" by the viewer (for example, dialogue in a foreign language) and captions as a "transcription or translation of the dialogue, sound effects, relevant musical cues, and other relevant audio information when sound is unavailable or not clearly audible" (for example, when audio is muted or the viewer is deaf or hard of hearing).
In 1981, TVNZ held a telethon to raise funds for Teletext-encoding equipment used for the creation and editing of text-based broadcast services for the deaf. The service came into use in 1984 with caption creation and importing paid for as part of the public broadcasting fee until the creation of the NZ on Air taxpayer fund, which is used to provide captioning for NZ On Air content, TVNZ news shows and conversion of EIA-608 US captions to the preferred EBU STL format for only TVNZ 1, TV 2 and TV 3 with archived captions available to FOUR and select Sky programming. During the second half of 2012, TV3 and FOUR began providing non-Teletext DVB image-based captions on their HD service and used the same format on the satellite service, which has since caused major timing issues in relation to server load and the loss of captions from most SD DVB-S receivers, such as the ones Sky Television provides their customers. As of April 2, 2013, only the Teletext page 801 caption service will remain in use with the informational Teletext non-caption content being discontinued.
In the United States, the National Captioning Institute noted that English as a foreign or second language (ESL) learners were the largest group buying decoders in the late 1980s and early 1990s before built-in decoders became a standard feature of US television sets. This suggested that the largest audience of closed captioning was people whose native language was not English. In the United Kingdom, of 7.5 million people using TV subtitles (closed captioning), 6 million have no hearing impairment.
Closed captions are also used in public environments, such as bars and restaurants, where patrons may not be able to hear over the background noise, or where multiple televisions are displaying different programs. In addition, online videos may be treated through digital processing of their audio content by various robotic algorithms (robots). Multiple chains of errors are the result. When a video is truly and accurately transcribed, then the closed-captioning publication serves a useful purpose, and the content is available for search engines to index and make available to users on the internet.
In some cases, the transcript is available beforehand, and captions are simply displayed during the program after being edited. For programs that have a mix of pre-prepared and live content, such as news bulletins, a combination of techniques is used.
Captioning is modulated and stored differently in PAL and SECAM 625 line 25 frame countries, where teletext is used rather than in EIA-608, but the methods of preparation and the line 21 field used are similar. For home Betamax and VHS videotapes, a shift down of this line 21 field must be done due to the greater number of VBI lines used in 625 line PAL countries, though only a small minority of European PAL VHS machines support this (or any) format for closed caption recording. Like all teletext fields, teletext captions can't be stored by a standard 625 line VHS recorder (due to the lack of field shifting support); they are available on all professional S-VHS recordings due to all fields being recorded. Recorded Teletext caption fields also suffer from a higher number of caption errors due to increased number of bits and a low SNR, especially on low-bandwidth VHS. This is why Teletext captions used to be stored separately on floppy disk to the analogue master tape. DVDs have their own system for subtitles and captions, which are digitally inserted in the data stream and decoded on playback into video.
As CC1 and CC2 share bandwidth, if there is a lot of data in CC1, there will be little room for CC2 data and is generally only used for the primary audio captions. Similarly, CC3 and CC4 share the second even field of line 21. Since some early caption decoders supported only single field decoding of CC1 and CC2, captions for SAP in a second language were often placed in CC2. This led to bandwidth problems, and the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) recommendation is that bilingual programming should have the second caption language in CC3. Many Spanish television networks such as Univision and Telemundo, for example, provides English subtitles for many of its Spanish programs in CC3. Canadian broadcasters use CC3 for French translated SAPs, which is also a similar practice in South Korea and Japan.
The US ATSC digital television system originally specified two different kinds of closed captioning datastream standards: the original analog-compatible (available by Line 21) and the more modern digital-only CEA-708 formats are delivered within the video stream. The US FCC mandates that broadcasters deliver (and generate, if necessary) both datastream formats with the CEA-708 format merely a conversion of the Line 21 format. The Canadian CRTC has not mandated that broadcasters either broadcast both datastream formats or exclusively in one format. Most broadcasters and networks to avoid large conversion cost outlays just provide EIA-608 captions along with a transcoded CEA-708 version encapsulated within CEA-708 packets.
Many modern digital television receivers can be directly connected to cables, but often cannot receive scrambled channels that the user is paying for. Thus, the lack of a standard way of sending CC information between components, along with the lack of a mandate to add this information to a picture, results in CC being unavailable to many hard-of-hearing and deaf users.
In New Zealand, captions use an EBU Ceefax-based teletext system on DVB broadcasts via satellite and cable television with the exception of MediaWorks New Zealand channels who completely switched to DVB RLE subtitles in 2012 on both Freeview satellite and UHF broadcasts, this decision was made based on the TVNZ practice of using this format on only DVB UHF broadcasts (aka Freeview HD). This made composite video connected TVs incapable of decoding the captions on their own. Also, these pre-rendered subtitles use classic caption style opaque backgrounds with an overly large font size and obscure the picture more than the more modern, partially transparent backgrounds.
NTSC DVDs may carry closed captions in data packets of the MPEG-2 video streams inside of the Video-TS folder. Once played out of the analog outputs of a set top DVD player, the caption data is converted to the Line 21 format. They are output by the player to the composite video (or an available RF connector) for a connected TV's built-in decoder or a set-top decoder as usual. They can not be output on S-Video or component video outputs due to the lack of a colorburst signal on line 21. (Actually, regardless of this, if the DVD player is in interlaced rather than progressive mode, closed captioning will be displayed on the TV over component video input if the TV captioning is turned on and set to CC1.) When viewed on a personal computer, caption data can be viewed by software that can read and decode the caption data packets in the MPEG-2 streams of the DVD-Video disc. Windows Media Player (before Windows 7) in Vista supported only closed caption channels 1 and 2 (not 3 or 4). Apple's DVD Player does not have the ability to read and decode Line 21 caption data which are recorded on a DVD made from an over-the-air broadcast. It can display some movie DVD captions.
In addition to Line 21 closed captions, video DVDs may also carry subtitles, which generally rendered from the EIA-608 captions as a bitmap overlay that can be turned on and off via a set top DVD player or DVD player software, just like the textual captions. This type of captioning is usually carried in a subtitle track labeled either "English for the hearing impaired" or, more recently, "SDH" (subtitled for the deaf and Hard of hearing). Many popular Hollywood DVD-Videos can carry both subtitles and closed captions (e.g. Stepmom DVD by Columbia Pictures). On some DVDs, the Line 21 captions may contain the same text as the subtitles; on others, only the Line 21 captions include the additional non-speech information (even sometimes song lyrics) needed for deaf and hard-of-hearing viewers. European Region 2 DVDs do not carry Line 21 captions, and instead list the subtitle languages available-English is often listed twice, one as the representation of the dialogue alone, and a second subtitle set which carries additional information for the deaf and hard-of-hearing audience. (Many deaf/HOH subtitle files on DVDs are reworkings of original teletext subtitle files.)
Blu-ray media cannot carry any VBI data such as Line 21 closed captioning due to the design of DVI-based High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) specifications that was only extended for synchronized digital audio replacing older analog standards, such as VGA, S-Video, component video, and SCART. Both Blu-ray and DVD can use either PNG bitmap subtitles or 'advanced subtitles' to carry SDH type subtitling, the latter being an XML-based textual format which includes font, styling and positioning information as well as a unicode representation of the text. Advanced subtitling can also include additional media accessibility features such as "descriptive audio". 041b061a72